Architect Quarenghi

The route will acquaint you with the creations of Giacomo Quarenghi, an architect discribed as the last of the great architects of Italy

The Italian architect Giacomo Quarenghi (1744 – 1817) was very popular in Russia where he moved in 1779. Many splendid buildings he erected in St. Petersburg became glaring examples of an austere and refined Classicism style. Quarenghi’s unique talent gained him several decades of continuous commissions from the Russian nobility. His works in Tsarskoye Selo represent a high point of Russian Classicism.

  • points of interest 4 ,
  • museums 1 ,
  • theaters 1 ,
  • palaces 1
37 km, 379 m
St.Petersburg Academy of Science

St.Petersburg Academy of Science

St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 5

The building of the Academy is a monument of strict classicism.

Russian Academy of Sciences was created according to the plan of Peter I, who understood the importance of scientific thought, education and culture for the prosperity of the country. Caring about the correspondence of the Academy's activities to the world level, Peter I invited leading foreign scientists to work for the new institution. Among the first were mathematicians Nikolai and Daniil Bernoulli, Christian Goldbach, physicist Georg Bülfinger, astronomer and geographer Joseph Delil, historian G.F. Miller. In 1727, Leonard Euler became a member of the Academy.

The building of the Academy, which we see today, was erected under Catherine II, who considered herself the successor of the affairs of Peter. The site west of the Kunstkamera was transferred to the Academy of Sciences in 1783. Construction under the supervision of architect G. Quarenghi was completed by 1787. The length of the facade of the building is 100.97 meters, the center is highlighted by a powerful portico of eight ionic columns and external granite stairs. The Academy building has become a symbol of the classical style in the architecture of St. Petersburg and one of the best creations of Quarenghi.

The internal arrangement of the Academy of Sciences building was completed only by the centennial of this scientific institution, by 1824. By this time, a conference hall, rooms of the committee of the board, a physical office, apartments of academicians and employees of the academy, a newspaper expedition (a post office department that distributes newspapers) and other services were located here.

One way or another, the activity of almost all outstanding Russian scientists from the 18th to the first quarter of the 20th century was connected with Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Among them are mathematicians P. L. Chebyshev, M. V. Ostrogradsky and A. N. Krylov, chemist A. M. Butlerov, physiologist I. P. Pavlov, geologist A. P. Karpinsky, natural scientist V. I. Vernadsky. The small conference hall of the Academy of Sciences building is associated with the activities of V.I. Lenin. Here, in the spring and autumn sessions of 1891, he took exams at the law faculty of St. Petersburg University.

In 1826, the development plan for the quarter behind the building on the embankment was approved. Here, by 1831, the museum wing of the Academy of Sciences was built (Birzhevoy passage, house No. 2). In 1828, the Physics Office had been transferred from the Kunstkamera to the Academy of Sciences, which was transformed into a Physics Laboratory at the beginning of the 20th century. On the basis of this laboratory, the Mathematics Office and the Seismic Commission, the Physics and Mathematics Institute was formed in 1921.

There have been some changes in the appearance of the building of the Academy of Sciences throughout its existence. In 1881, a wooden fence made on the basis of Quarenghi's drawing between the columns of the portico and on the descents of the main staircase was replaced by a metal grate.

In preparation for the celebration of the 200th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in 1925, the mosaic painting "Poltava Battle", created by Mikhail Lomonosov in 1764, was placed on the upper platform of the main staircase. In 1934, the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences was transferred to Moscow, leaving the archive, library and Leningrad Scientific Center of the USSR Research Institute in the old building. In the 1930s, the N. Y. Marr Institute of Language and Thinking worked in the building on the banks of the Neva and the apartment of the mathematician and shipbuilder A.N. Krylov was located here from 1937 to 1945.

For a long time in the building housed the Administrative Department of Leningrad institutions of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy worked in the Museum wing in the 1950s and 1960s. A marble plaque is mounted on the basement of the building, showing the rise of the water level in the Neva during the 1924 flood.

Currently, the building of the Academy of Sciences houses the St. Petersburg Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Hermitage Theatre

Hermitage Theatre

Saint Petersburg, Dvortsovaya embankment, 34

Hermitage Theatre is one of the oldest in St. Petersburg and in Russia

It was built by the architect Giacomo Quarenghi commissioned by Catherine II in 1783-1789 on the site of the former Winter Palace of Peter I. The auditorium of the theater is arranged like in an antique one: semicircular rows of benches are raising from the amphitheater. The hall of theater has conserved an original form. The Russian Ballet Theater created in 1990 by a family of professional actors and soloists of the Mariinsky Theater has been organizing and holding performances on the stage of the Hermitage Theater for more than 20 years.

The auditorium is laid out and arranged so that with a sufficient area space for artists, it does not require the use of binoculars; everything that happens on stage, can be seen from any point. In addition, the layout of the hall allows sound and light scatter competently, without distortion.

2 km, 880 m
Mariinskaya hospital

Mariinskaya hospital

St. Petersburg, Liteiny pr., 56

The oldest hospital of public service in the city

Mariinskaya Municipal Hospital was founded in 1803 as a hospital for the poor. Before 1805 it was in the building of the Correctional House near the Kalinkin Bridge. The main building and wings were designed in the Empire style in 1803-05 (architect G. Quarenghi). In 1828 Mariinskaya Hospital was named in memory of the Empress Maria Fedorovna. In 1848 the building for the women’s ward was constructed (at 12 Mayakovskogo Street), which received the name of Alexandrinskaya Hospital in memory of the daughter of Emperor Nicholas I Alexandra who died of tuberculosis (from 1926 the building housed the Institute of Neurosurgery). In 1894 the Mariinskaya Hospital was given to the authority of the City Government; 3-year advanced training courses were established for doctors and from 1904 onwards women doctors also started to be accepted. From 1918, it was called the Hospital in Memory of Victims of the Revolution, and in 1935 it was named Kuybyshev Hospital (in 1992 the historical name was returned). In the 1960s new wings of Mariinskaya Hospital were erected. The Mariinskaya Hospital is used as the clinical basis of the State Pediatrical Medical Academy. It has 1,300 beds. In various years I.V. Buyalsky, K.K. Reyer, E.V. Pavlov, A.A. Troyanov, N.A. Velyaminov, V.G. Baranov and others worked at the hospital. A monument to Prince P.G. Oldenburg, who was in the head of the Council of Curators in 1839-81, was opened In front of the hospital building in 1889 (the monument was demolished in 1933; a cup with a snake was installed in its place).

3 km, 804 m
Building of The Assignation Bank

Building of The Assignation Bank

St. Petersburg, Sadovaya st., 21

Nowadays St. Petersburg state economic university

In the XVIII century it was decided to adjust release of paper money - bank notes by the example of Germany. For these purposes the Assignation bank was founded in 1769. In 1782 the empress Catherine II enjoined to build the special building for Assignation bank. Giacomo Quarenghi became the architect, his project was approved on May 5, 1783. Work on the building of the Assignation bank became the first for Quarenghi in St. Petersburg. The building was built from 1783 to 1790. The art cast-iron fencing from Sadovaya Street was established in 1791. From 1799 to 1805 there was a Bank mint here. Till 1817 the building of the bank issued bank notes, in 1843 the bank was closed as unnecessary as state bank notes were put into use. The State Russian bank began its work here in 1849. On June 3, 1930 the Leningrad Financial and economic Institute opened in the building of the bank (later University of Economy and Finance, nowadays St. Petersburg state economic university). In 1967 in the yard from Sadovaya Street Giacomo Quarenghi's bust made by M. N. Meysel and L. L. Lazarev was established.

3 km, 267 m
Obukhovskaya hospital

Obukhovskaya hospital

St. Petersburg, nab. reki Fontanki , 106

One of the first city hospitals in Russia

Obukhovskaya hospital was founded in 1779; originally it had 60 beds and included "Dolgauz,” the first psychiatric institution in the city. It was named after Obukhovsky Avenue and Bridge. The first stone building was the men’s wing (1784, architect L. Ruska), then the women’s wing (1836-39, architect P.S. Plavov) was added and in 1866 two more wings were added, one of which was called the Prince’s Wing in honour of the Prince P.G. Oldenburg. In 1829 the first school for medical attendants was attached to the hospital. The transformation of the Obukhovskaya Hospital into a cutting edge scientific clinical institution was carried out by chief doctor A.A. Nechaev (1890-1922). From 1922 the hospital was called Nechaev Obukhovskaya Hospital in memory of the 9th of January 1905 (during the events of 1905, wounded demonstrators were admitted into this hospital). In the 1920s-30s it served as the clinical base for medical institutes and the Institute of Experimental Medicine; in 1932 higher medical courses were attached to the Obukhovskaya Hospital (from 1935 the District Courses, and from 1936 the Third Leningrad Medical Institute). In 1940 the Military Naval Medical Academy (see Military Medical Academy) was formed on the basis of Obukhovskaya Hospital as a medical institute. N.F. Arendt, I.I. Grekov, V.M. Kernig, A.A. Troyanov, and others worked at the hospital. On the territory of the hospital there is a monument to N. I. Pirogov; there are memorial plaques to I.I. Grekov, A.P. Kolesov, A.V. Melnikov, N.S. Molchanov, A.A. Nechaev on the buildings; in the vestibule of the former women’s wing (47 Zagorodny Avenue) there is a memorial plaque to Z.M. Volynsky.

1 km, 857 m
Alexander Palace

Alexander Palace

St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Dvortsovaya ul., 2

One of the finest creations of Classicism in architecture, the Alexander Palace was the favourite home of several generations of the Romanovs for more than a century

In the Northern part of the picturesque Alexander Park there is a magnificent building with a two-century history - the Alexander Palace. It was laid down in 1792 by order of Catherine the Great for the marriage of her favorite grandson, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich (the future Emperor Alexander I) with Grand Duchess Elizaveta Alexeevna. The palace is considered one of the best creations of the architect Giacomo Quarenghi. The palace went down in history as the last home of Emperor Nicholas II and his family. He made the palace their permanent residence in 1905.

The Palace is an elongated two-story building with double wings on the sides. In the center of the main northern facade, there are two rows of columns which make up a magnificent colonnade of the Corinthian order. From the side of the regular part of the Alexander Park, the facade of the building is designed in the form of a semi-rotunda, covered with a spherical dome.

At the present time the palace is under restoration.​

24 km, 723 m
Tsarskoye Selo State Museum-Preserve

Tsarskoye Selo State Museum-Preserve

St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Sadovaya street, 7

A superb monument of world-ranking architecture and garden-and-park design

Tsarskoye Selo State Museum-Preserve is a monument of world architecture and park and garden art of XVIII - early ХХ century. A whole range of reigns starting  from Catherine I and lasting till Nicolas II left its own influence and traces in Tsarskoye Selo. The compositionl centre of the monument is the Catherine Palace - a magnificent construction in Russian Baroque style: Bolshoy Hall of the Palace and Golden Enfilade of great halls, among which there is a world-famous revived Amber Room enrapture by the luxury of decor. Alexandrovsky Palace, where one can learn about everyday life of the last Romanovs Nicholas II and Alexandra Fyodorovna, is one of the best models of world classisism architecture. More than 100 architectural constructions on the area of over 300 ha are situated on the territory of Ekaterininsky and Alexandrovsky parks.

The Amber Room of the Catherine Palace is called the Eighth World Wonder. In 1716 Friedrich Wilchelm I presented an Amber Room I as a diplomatical gift to Peter I. The Amber Room got its final image only by 1770, when upon Екатерины II's will some changes were introduced into the room's design. Authentic Room was exported to Koenigsberg during World War II times and disappeared without a trace in 1944. The modern Amber Room is a result of reconstruction works, which lasted from 1981 to 1997. 

Tsarskoye Selo is also home to one of the finest creations of Classicism in architecture – the Alexander Palace. Passing through the rooms of the living apartments you can get an idea of the aesthetic preferences of the last members of the Romanov dynasty and view the Emperor’s State Study that was decorated in the Moderne style.

More than a hundred historical monuments are scattered across the Catherine and Alexander Parks that have a joint area of 300 hectares: there are grand palaces and intimate pavilions, bridges and marble monuments, and also exotic structures imitating Gothic, Turkish and Chinese architecture.

The World War I Museum  “Russia in the Great War” is open  in  The Martial Chamber from August 2014.